Guide A History of Beer and Brewing

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Jernigan, D. Thirsting for the African market.

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McAllister, P. Indigenous beer in southern Africa: functions and fluctuations. Ubuntu and the morality of Xhosa beer drinking — a critical appraisal. Martinez, P. A comparison of alcohol use and correlates of drinking patterns among men and women aged 50 and above in Ghana and South Africa. Obot, I. Alcohol use and related problems in Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Alcohol marketing in Africa: not an ordinary business. Odejide, O. Alcohol policies in Africa. Pan, L. Alcohol in Colonial Africa. Rehm, J. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Roberts, J. Michael Power and Guinness masculinity in Africa. Siiskonen, H. Namibia and the heritage of colonial alcohol policy. Slocum, J. Jr, Conder, W. Fermentation in the China beer industry.

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Speke, J. What Led to the Discovery of the Source of the Nile. In the 16th and17th centuries more and more regulations were brought in to ensure the quality of beers. The 19th century marked a new chapter in beer history with the breakthrough of the Czech pilsner - it was an instant success in the world of cloudy, dark regional beers.

During the Industrial Revolution scientists gained a better insight into the brewing process and yeast culture in general.

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The First World War was the final blow for several Belgian breweries when the German occupying forces seized the copper vats, equipment and their vehicles. Only half of the nearly 3, breweries survived. Then the breweries, which slowly picked up where they left off, were dealt a new, heavy blow during the economic crisis of the s and by the effects of Second World War. In only breweries remained.

History of beer

In the following decades, more and more microbreweries closed as a result of strong competition and the high investment cost for new installations, while the big breweries consolidated their home market through acquisitions. Between and large and medium-sized breweries began to merge and local microbreweries opened, largely brewing beer for export, in some cases at the request of foreign importers who were looking for unique Belgian beers.

Since the turn of the century the interest in authentic speciality beers has continued to grow and the Belgian beer industry now includes some of the best known and popular brands. In addition, Trappist beers are becoming increasingly exclusive because of the limited quantities produced by the monasteries, and also popular are the distinctive specialty beers of local and family-owned breweries.

At the same time, the variety of beer available became more limited and actually caused most of the unique regional beers that had been developed over centuries to become extinct. Because of its emphasis on creative flavors, food pairings, and the DIY hobby culture it steams from, craft beer gives women slightly more opportunity for inclusion—even if bros still struggle to take them seriously. In Colorado, one of the most brewery-rich states in the country with individual facilities, there are only 10 women total who are known to be a part of the main brewing process.

The main obstacles that women continue to face in this industry include perceptions of taste, media influence, and preconceived notions about their skill and ability.

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For more women to be involved in the beer industry it helps to increase the amount of women drinking beer. According to a recent Gallup poll , only 20 percent of women prefer beer over other alcoholic beverages. Beer is for guys, as just about any Budweiser or Coors television ad will remind you. The role most often played by women in these spots is either the sexy waitress or the would-be girlfriend.