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These conservationists often come from humble backgrounds, and find themselves limited in their ability to expand and fund their work because of the challenges posed by language barriers, geographical remoteness and restricted access to technology and education. These individuals are identified for Sanctuary by credible conservation leaders. Over a two-year period, the selected Project Leaders receive a monetary grant and other strategic support from Sanctuary.

COCOON seeks to improve the lives of Indian farmers who live near forest land by rewilding their failed farms back to biodiverse forest status, and helping them find new sources of income, like ecotourism. The money from the tourism goes to the farmers who still own the land. Additionally, their families are also provided education and medical care. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved The Times of India. Concept Publishing Company. The Fictional World of Ruskin Bond.

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Sterling Publishers Pvt. Hindustan Times. By looking not only at the local scale and at the global scale as, for instance, in the case of the WCD , but also introducing a scale sensitive to diverse ecological variations, the case of large dams can be addressed much better Baghel and Nsser This addresses the weakness of studies that analyse large dams, but at the national scale, because this homogenises the nation as one particular kind of ecological space and loses sight of the appropriateness of the technology to specific ecoregions.

The fallacy of national environments is instead one that perpetuates the construction of large dams, and by using this level of analysis, a very important aspect of ecological variability and thus the varying appropriateness of large dams to specific ecoregions.

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Further, it is important not only to recognise space as having agency and variability but also to recognise the aspect of place which is dynamic on smaller time scales as compared to, e. As place includes not only the biogeophysical environment but also the notion of affect or emotional response to this space, it is important to recognise that not only do emotional responses towards the biophysical environment constantly change, but also they constantly acquire new meanings.

This means, for example, that a river may have been seen as sacred earlier, and then as an industrial resource, and at another time perhaps as a source of aesthetic pleasure. A dam constructed on this very river would therefore not be constructed on the very same place, which means that even when a technology has been considered appropriate at one time, it may have become inappropriate due to a change in values and the dynamic nature of place.

This becomes readily apparent when the case of the demolition of many large dams across North America is taken into account. Dams that were once seen as a necessary evil have come to be seen as merely evil. This has often been a result of changing responses to the river from an industrial source to an aesthetic one, the idea of a place as being part of a salmon run, revaluation of species e. The changing character of place and the variability of space therefore are both essential factors to be considered when analysing the appropriateness of large dams.

Due to the legacy of a normative ideal of rivers that has its basis in colonial era moral and theological judgement of spaces and its inhabitants, dams continue to be attempts at creating a utopia. However, this utopian mission is subtly inflected with an attempt to recreate the ideal spaces of colonisers in an attempt to overturn their judgements.

The attempt to impose these spaces and spatial qualities from elsewhere have resulted in the incongruities of rivers that are out of place and an anatopism in the spaces where they have been recreated. While it is difficult to do such a complex topic justice in the limited space of this chapter, this critique brings into focus a very important but overlooked aspect of large dams as a technology, namely, their connection with space and time. This technology needs to be put into its spatial and temporal context.

A case has also been made in this chapter for acknowledging the dangers of ignoring the connections between space and knowledge.

Large Dams in Asia

Geographers are especially well suited for addressing this gap, and bringing in a spatial perspective can enrich the dam debate while making newer approaches possible. These may also break the stalemate and enable shifts away from entrenched positions that are based on a simplistic understanding of dams. By undermining the certainties of the proponents of the hydraulic mission, this chapter identifies the question Are large dams good or bad?

It is argued that the question instead needs to be changed to: Are large dams appropriate for this particular space and time?

Dr. Ravi Baghel

This question addresses both the appropriateness of a large dam for a particular location, in terms of the dynamic constraints it imposes upon the functioning of a dam. In addition, this question also incorporates the equally important element of the appropriateness of this technology to a particular time, with respect to the changing values of a society.

This recognises that the choice of such a massive and disruptive technological solution is never value neutral, and as a consequence, both proponents and opponents need to make the values that guide them explicit and ready for examination. The recognition of large dams as situated within a particular time and place further leads us to rethink human-environmental interactions from ideas of man and nature, man against nature4 to one of humans in nature Meyer-Abich , ; Berkes and Folke ; Berkes et al.

Fervent proponents of dams have at times placed them in the context of Hammurabis famous inscription where he claimed I have transformed the desert plains into fertile fields, given their residents fertility and abundance, and I have made the country an abode of delight Costa cited in Molle et al. However, a proclamation symbolising the hubris of dam building with a more appropriate irony might instead be found in the words of Shelley: My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair! Shelley , p. I must also thank Prof Nsser for his mentoring and advice, Thomas Lennartz for contributing his valuable organisational skills and all my colleagues in the Department of Geography, South Asia Institute, for their encouragement and support.

References Agarwal A, Narain S Dying wisdom: rise, fall and potential of Indias traditional water harvesting systems. Water Altern 3 2 Berkes F, Folke C eds Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. The original sexist language is retained here to reflect the phallogocentric nature of such positions. Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C Navigating social-ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. Land use and integrated water resources management.

Technical report. Hist Compass 4 4 Davis M Los Angeles after the storm: the dialectic of ordinary disaster. Antipode 27 3 : Davis M The origin of the third world. Antipode 32 1 Dharmadhikary S Unravelling Bhakra: assessing the temple of resurgent India.

Sage Publications Inc. In: Jasanoff S ed States of knowledge: the co-production of science and social order. A historical-geographical critique of a modern concept. The history of a modern abstraction. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver Livingstone DN The moral discourse of climate: historical considerations on race, place and virtue. J Hist Geogr 17 4 Livingstone DN The spaces of knowledge: contributions towards a historical geography of science. Daedalus 3 Molle F River-basin planning and management: the social life of a concept.

Water Altern 2 3 Morrison KD Dharmic projects, imperial reservoirs, and new temples of India: an historical perspective on dams in India. Conserv Soc 8 3 Nagel T The view from nowhere. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Futures 33 89 Naylor S Introduction: historical geographies of science places, contexts, cartographies.

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Q J Econ 96 3 Shapin S Placing the view from nowhere: historical and sociological problems in the location of science. Benbow, London Sheppard E Geography, nature, and the question of development. A new framework for decision-making. Earthscan, London Withers CWJ Geography, natural history and the eighteenth-century enlightenment: putting the world in place.

Hist Workshop J 39 1 Tibetan Water to Save China? Abstract In recent Chinese political rhetoric concerning the promotion of the so-called Great Western Route of the South-North Water Diversion, participants in the discourse shape their arguments to meet both the demands of the internal debate within China as well as the governments agenda, to strengthen their position. This is achieved by selectively appropriating those elements of foreign as well as reinterpreted traditional Chinese knowledge about water diversion that fortify the respective positions in the internal debate.

In their arguments, the discourse contributors stress not only steady economic development that relies strongly on sufficient water resources as prerequisite for social stability and national integrity, but they also connect economic power with the iconic and prestigious aspects of large-scale hydro-engineering projects as a means of strengthening Chinas powerful international position.

By combining arguments found in foreign discourses and traditional Chinese models, the discourse participants aim to show that China can overcome her perceived weakness in contrast to Western countries and become a stronger and more modern society. The domination and transformation of nature through large-scale water diversion is presented as the only means to save China.

Chinas water resources are unevenly distributed. Whereas North China experiences an increasing water shortage, resulting in environmental deterioration due to a combination of scarce resources and overexploitation, in South China large amounts of water either flow away unutilised or cause floods and disasters. This is often. Seeger, M.

Large Dams in Asia: Contested Environments Between Technological Hydroscapes and Social Resistance

Putting such a scheme into place would lead to a large-scale transformation of nature by mankind, although recent official rhetoric perpetuated by the Chinese government stresses a harmonious coexistence of mankind with nature ren yu ziran hexie xiangchu 2 Zhongguo Gongchandang From a modernist point of view, characterised by a technocratic mindset,4 rationalisation of nature entails the assumption that for example river water is only a useful natural resource if controlled, evenly distributed, both spatially.

The idea of South-North Water Diversion is normally ascribed to Mao Zedong who already pointed to Chinas unevenly distributed water resources in at an inspection tour at the Yellow River: There is a lot of water in the South and little in the North, if only it were possible to borrow some [from the South] Wang , p.

Kao and Leung , p.