Manual The Ozone Layer: A Philosophy of Science Perspective

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An analytic expression cited by Duffie and Beckman states that I sei corresponds to an I sc fractional variation:. A wide known mathematical expression to modulate I sei at any location around the globe corresponds to. Considering the fractional variation between daily extraterrestrial radiation and solar constant Eq.

Symmetry is broken by terrestrial factors; one of them depends on daily atmospheric conditions, which determine its seasonal or monthly behavior. The relative optical path length that radiation experiments passing through the ozone layer Iqbal, is related to the ozone spectral absorption of UV radiation Bernhard et al.

Most theoretical equations for relative optical mass-but not for radiation beams of narrow spectral bands as UV-A and UV-B radiations-refer to global spectral irradiance. The fractional change in the monthly total ozone average Amm with respect to the annual total ozone average AYY , will be weighted by the modulated monthly average of fractional change in extraterrestrial solar radiation G [ I sei m ]; thus, F m , YY - T , written as. This allows the comparison of related years. From through , a very good day-to-day agreement between O 3,teo adaptive model and satellite data is found.

In the period from through , the O 3,teo model shows a considerable uniformity with respect to satellite data. Predicted data for years , , and exhibit slightly discrepancies with satellite data. The model for presents an illustrative similarity with the expected satellite data. Discrepancies from the O 3,teo model and experimental satellite data oscillate between 1. Nevertheless, the O 3,teo model is sensitive to the sunspot cycle period. Furthermore, since data series are collected from different satellite missions with different instrumentation and calibration procedures Stolarski and Frith, , factors as data homogeneity are not considered in this study, as well as natural phenomena like volcanic activity, which has an important influence in the dynamics of stratospheric ozone due to the emission of SO 2 Zerefos, The O 3,teo model outlines predictions from through in a day-to-day basis, taking a sunspot cycle period of 11 years.

The blue line in Figure 6 represents the computed average of the percentage relative errors between predictions and satellite data. In no prediction was computed since there were no reported satellite data in 11 yrs back. Future studies could take into consideration a comparison between periods of 10 to 12 yrs, in order to determine how sunspot solar cycles change.

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The adaptive model Eq. Explicitly, the O 3,teo adaptive model can be written as. Further studies from other locations can validate this expression. Bernhard G. Bias in Dobson total ozone measurements at high latitudes due to approximations in calculations of ozone absorption coefficients and air mass. DOI: Christie M.

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The ozone layer: A philosophy of science perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. DANE, Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica. Duffie J.

Solar engineering of thermal processes. Wiley, New York, pp. Ozone absorption and pure air scattering of solar ultraviolet B Radiation.

HPB | Search for The Ozone Hole

Hathaway D. The solar cycle. Living Rev. Iqbal M. An introduction to solar radiation. Elsevier, pp. Kopp G.

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A new, lower value of total solar irradiance: Evidence and climate significance. McPeters R.

Space-based measurements of ozone and air quality. Randel W. A stratospheric ozone profile data set for Variability, trends, and comparisons with column ozone data. Schwartz S. Pure Appl. SILSO, World data center for the production, preservation and dissemination of the International sunspot number. Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels.

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